James Inyang Asuquo, Dorathy C. Okpokam, Josephine O. Akpotuzor and Anthony O. Emeribe
AJLHTS: Original Paper DOI –ajlhtsonline.org/doi-org-10-59708-ajlhts-v2i2-2211/
Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is known to be the leading cause of death globally and it is responsible for one third of all global deaths. The research was conducted to assess some complete blood count, von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, C reactive protein and ABO blood group that could serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular disease.
Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixty persons were studied, comprising 200 CVD subjects and 160 apparently healthy persons as controls, between 35-82 years of age. Fifty-nine percent of the CVD subjects were male while female constituted 41%. Questionnaires and folders were used to obtain information. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 22. ABO blood group was determined by standard tube method. Complete Blood Count was carried out with Sysmex counter, von Willebrand factor, Fibrinogen levels and C reactive protein were determined by Enzyme-Link Immuno- sorbent Assay methods, while plasma glucose and lipid profile were determined by colorimetric method. Systolic Blood Pressure and Diastolic Blood Pressure of the participants were determined. Results: Significantly higher value were observed for SBP, DBP, vWf, WBC, RDW-CV, FPG, CRP and MPV among CVD subjects, when compared to control group, While significant lower level of platelet count were recorded among CVD subjects (200.43±70.45/1) compared to control group (234.91+48.85). CVD subjects on treatment recorded significant lower value of vWf (p=0.000) and FPG (p=0.000), compared with untreated subjects. Classification of subjects based on ABO blood type revealed that group O had significantly lower vwf (p=0.000), Group A had significant higher value of plasma glucose compared to other groups. Group A also recorded significant higher value of LDL than other blood groups. CVD subjects who smoke cigarettes had significant raised glucose
levels (p=0.005) than non-smokers. Significantly lower level of CRP (4.63±3.77mg/L) was seen in female subjects compared to the male (6.41+4.35mg/L).
Conclusion: It concludes that CBC, vWf, SBP, and DBP showed mild significant increase in their plasma level in CVD subjects and their
assay should form part of the markers for routine diagnosis of CVD in UCTH and can be useful for monitoring of treatment. Keyword: Cardiovascular disease, Haemoglobin, von Williebrand factor, Fibrinogen, ABO blood group, C Reactive Protein.
Eze, Evelyn Mgbeoma, Jacob, Ransom Baribefii’ and Mopho Kam-Ima Gods’day
AJLHTS: Original Paper DOI –ajlhtsonline.org/doi-org-10-59708-ajlhts-v2i2-2311/
Introduction: Prothrombin time (PT), International normalized ratio (INR) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) are screening tests used to evaluate the overall integrity of the intrinsic, extrinsic and common coagulation pathway as well as monitoring and management of coagulation disorders. This study was aimed at assessing the PT, INR and APTT among apparently healthy undergraduate Medical Laboratory Science students of Rivers State University, Port Harcourt.
Materials and Methods: A total of 100 apparently healthy undergraduate Medical Laboratory Science students of Rivers State University, Port Harcourt comprising of 44 males and 56 females within the age range of 17-40 years were recruited for this study. Five milliliters (5ml) of venous blood was collected from each participant using a standard venipuncture technique into a vacutainer bottle containing 3.2% tri-sodium citrate anticoagulant in a ratio of 1:9 of the anticoagulant and the blood and mixed thoroughly. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were determined by clotting method using the Helena C4 semi-automated, photo- optical coagulation analyzer and the Agappe thromboplastin test kit manufactured by Agappe Diagnostics Switzerland while INR was calculated by using the ratio of the study subjects’ PT to the mean of control PT raised to the power of the reagent international sensitivity index (ISI). The data obtained was analyzed using Graphpad Prism Software version 6.00. Data was presented as means, median, range and standard deviation.
Results: The mean ± SD of the PT, INR and APTT were 12.9± 1.624s, 1.01±0.1281 and 37.99±8.898s in the same order. The reference intervals obtained for PT, INR and APTT were 9.7-16.2s, 0.8-1.3 and APTT 20.2-55.8s in the same order. The lower limits were within the ranges established by previous researchers while the upper
limits were higher. The age range 21-25 had the highest frequency count (54), which was followed by <20 (26), 26-30 (17) and then <30 (3). The overall mean values for the age groups were within the established normal values and as such no statistically significant difference was observed between the various groups.
Conclusion: This study has established the mean values and reference intervals of PT, INR and APTT for apparently healthy Medical Laboratory Science undergraduate students of Rivers State University, Port Harcourt as well as established that age does not have any significant effect on PT, INR and APTT. Due to geography, lifestyle, and genetic diversity, it is recommended that each laboratory establishes geography-specific reference intervals for PT, INR and APTT.
Keywords: Coagulation parameters, Reference intervals, Prothrombin time, International normalized ratio, Activated partial thromboplastin time, Undergraduates.
Zaccheaus Awortu Jeremiah, Wozi Charles Nanaboemi and Theresa Awortu Jeremiah
AJLHTS: Original Paper DOI –ajlhtsonline.org/doi-org-10-59708-ajlhts-v2i2-2312/
Introduction: Sickle cell disease is an autosomal recessive disorder in which patients inherit one mutated copy of the B-globin gene from each parent. This inheritance results to sickle-shaped red blood cell and associated fragility which results in the destruction of the patients red blood cells. This project was carried out as a population genetic study to determine the frequencies of the haemoglobin haplotypes (A and S) and allelic frequencies with a view to predicting the dynamics of the abnormal genes using a typical African community as a case study.
Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twenty-eight (228) subjects constituted the study population of which one hundred and sixty four (164) were males (28%). Haemoglobin electrophoresis membrane at a pH 8.6 was used to establish the haemoglobin electrophoretic pattern of the study population.
Results: The haemoglobin electrophoretic pattern of the study participants were as follows: Hb AA (60.5%), Hb AS (25.5%) and HbSS (14%). The distribution among males were; HbAA (62.2%), HbAS (29.3%) and HbSS (8.5%). and females: Hb AA (56.3%), HbAS (15.6%), HbSS (28.1%). The HbA haplotype frequency was 0.732 while the HbS was 0.268. the allelic frequencies obtained by Hardy-Weinberg calculation were as follows. HbAA (0.536), HbAS (0.392) and Hb SS (0.072). The x2 value of 29.475 obtained in this study was higher than the 3.84 at 5% significant level, hence, the null hypothesis that the population is not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was accepted..
Conclusion: The study revealed high homozygous HbSS inheritance among females (28.1%) meaning that females are more affected than the males. The frequency of HbAS is expected to increase as this population is not in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. More awareness and sensitization is needed in our communities in order to reduce the prevalence of sickle cell anaemia in our African society. Keywords; haplotypes, allelic frequencies, population genetics, Okolobiri, Nigeria.
Akpan, P. A, Okwara, C. C, Wonah, P. M.
AJLHTS: Original Paper DOI –ajlhtsonline.org/doi-org-10-59708-ajlhts-v2i2-2318/
Introduction: Cooking gas in the form of liquefied petroleum gas is sold in gas stations and outlets by vendors who do not use personal protective equipment despite working in a high-risk environment hence they have a high exposure to inhalation of the chemicals in the gas. This study assessed the full blood count and haemorheologic variables of vendors exposed to liquefied petroleum gas. Methods: Forty gas vendors were enrolled from four gas stations in Calabar while forty apparently healthy individuals who do not work in gas-related jobs were recruited as control. Ethical approval was granted by the Cross River State Ministry of Health, Calabar. Permission to enroll workers was obtained from the management of gas stations while study subjects gave informed consent. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain demographic information and health history while blood pressure, weight and height were measured using standard instruments; the body mass index was calculated. The full blood count and haemorheologic variables were determined by standard methods. Data analysis was done using a student t-test on SPSS version 21 and a P value ≤0.05 was considered significant.
Results: The mean age was 25.9±3.2 years and 26.5±6.5 years for the test and control groups with gas vendors being predominantly males (97.5%). Work duration of 97.5% of gas vendors was ≤5 years. Sixty percent of the control and 42.5% of the gas vendors engaged in regular exercise while 40% and 57.5% do not. Sixty-seven–point five percent (67.5%) of the control rarely go for medical checks and 27.5% had never had a medical check with only 2% who check often. For the gas vendors, 55% have never had a medical check while 45% of them rarely check. Also, 42.5% of the control have never or rarely checked their blood pressure while 15% check often; 62.5% of the gas vendors have never checked their blood pressure while 37.5% rarely check. There was a family history of hypertension for 2 (5%) of the control and none for the test group.
Naomi A. Ernest, Dorathy C. Okpokam, Patience A. Akpan, Henshaw Okoroiwu, and Anthony O. Emeribe
AJLHTS: Original Paper DOI –ajlhtsonline.org/doi-org-10-59708-ajlhts-v2i2-2319/
Introduction: Human red blood cells contain on their surface a series of glycoproteins and glycolipids which constitute the blood group antigens, which are also related to many clinical problems associated with transfusion reactions
Aims of study: aimed at providing information on
the ABO and Rhesus Blood grouping in Relation to occurrence of stillbirth, Miscarriage and transfusion status among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study comprising of 400 pregnant women, aged 16-45years and who gave their informed consent was used. ABO and Rhesus blood groups were analysed using commercially prepared reagent. Haemolysin test and antibody screening were performed using standard cells. Results: Most of the pregnant women were aged 16 – 36 years and no underweight pregnant women were recorded in this study. The prevalence of ABO blood group among the pregnant women showed the decreasing order of O>A>B>AB. It was observed that blood group O appeared about 3 times the prevalent of each group. The prevalence of Rhesus positive and Negative was 95% and 5% respectively. 5.5% of stillbirth was recorded while miscarriage had a prevalence of 17%. Approximately 5% of the pregnant women received blood transfusion. Rhesus blood group was found to be associated with still-birth (P=0.004).
Conclusion: ABO blood group distribution was in the order O>A>B>AB 63%, 20%, 14% and 3.0%. On the other hand, the study shows the prevalence of Rhesus D’ positive and Rhesus D’ negative to be 95% and 5% respectively. Blood group ‘O’ and rhesus positive blood group were predominant in stillbirth, miscarriages and transfusion status. It is recommended that the use of group O blood free from haemolysin a and ẞ should only be transfused to pregnant women because of risk to the foetus.
Joseph E. Udosen, Euphoria C. Akwiwu, Dennis A. Abunimye, David U. Akpotuzor, Eme E. Onukak, Onyekachi E. Ibe, Josephine O. Akpotuzor
AJLHTS: Original Paper DOI –ajlhtsonline.org/doi-org-10-59708-ajlhts-v2i2-2320/
Introduction: Breast cancer is witnessing increasing detection in Nigeria following more awareness and access to medical care. It is predominantly observed in the same group (women of reproductive age) with the highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection. This study focused on breast cancer and HIV infection co-morbidity with regards to cytopenia during a follow-up period. Methods: This follow-up study enrolled 50 persons living with HIV (PLWH) and accessing care at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital at Calabar, Southern Nigeria. Breast cancer co-morbidity and other clinical information were retrieved from patients‘ folders. Blood sample was appropriately obtained from each subject at intervals of six months starting from the time of diagnosis and analysed by automation for blood cell and CD4 counts. Frequencies, student T-test was used for analysis of data. Statistical significance was drawn at a p≤ 0.05.
Results: Mean values of haemoglobin concentration, CD4 count and platelet count were significantly lower among PLWH compared to control subjects. The prevalence of HIV infection and breast cancer co-morbidity was observed to be 6%. There was reduction in the prevalence of cytopenia as duration of therapy progressed. Anaemia and immunosuppression were not completely addressed after one year of therapy.
Conclusion: The study observed 6% of breast cancer co-morbidity in HIV infection among women of reproductive age. Unresolved cytopenia remains a challenge in HIV infection, particularly with breast cancer co-morbidity, even after a year of adhering to antiretroviral therapy.
Joseph E. Udosen’, Onyekachi E. Ibe, Joy C. Okanumee, *Euphoria C. Akwiwu, Josephine O. Akpotuzor, Jane U. Austin–Abu, Nneamaka C. Alo
AJLHTS: Original Paper DOI – ajlhtsonline.org/doi-org-10-59708-ajlhts-v2i2-2323/
Introduction: Three years after its declaration as a pandemic, countries and regions are still gathering data on the epidemiology of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS- CoV-2) infection. Following the relaxation of many restrictions earlier imposed to curb spread and the observation of some sort of seasonal surge in infection rates, it is still not clear whether the disease should remain a pandemic.
Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Ninety-two adult male and female patients presenting with common symptoms associated with COVID-19 disease were enrolled at the Outpatient Department of the facility. Ethical approval was duly sought and obtained from The Ethics and Health Research Committee of the hospital. Informed consent was obtained from each study participant. The COVID-19 testing was determined using Panbio COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test Device from Abbott (United States). Results are presented as numbers and frequencies.
Results: Among outpatients presenting with symptoms such as fever and midnight sweats, body aches and pain, difficulty in breathing as well as cough and catarrh, the prevalence of COVID-19 was observed to be 15.2%. On the knowledge of the respondents regarding COVID-19, majority (80.6%) had a prior knowledge while 19.4% lacked knowledge of COVID-19.
Conclusion: This study observed 15.2% prevalence for COVID–19 infection among outpatients in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. There still exists persons (19.4%) who lack knowledge of the disease. Key words: COVID-19, Coronavirus disease, pandemic, epidemiology.
Lawal, S.A. Ugbomoiko, D Muhibi M.A Olatunbosun, L.O, Shittu A. Olalere, F.D. Ogunwale KAT, Ibrahim, S.E. Abdul Raheem, A.A. and Lawal, I.K.
AJLHTS: Original Paper DOI – ajlhtsonline.org/doi-org-10-59708-ajlhts-v2i2-2324/
Introduction: Influence of Blood storage lesions on Red Blood Cells transfusion recovery and therapeutic efficacies have been well documented. Several stabilizing additives to counteract or minimize these untoward changes have been formulated. Despite these stabilizers, detectable hemolysis occurs in the blood stored in the blood bank hence, need for search on other contributing factors. Assessment of the effects of Blood Donation Frequencies and Types of Blood Donors on Storage Lesions as Assessed by the Level of Antioxidants and Lipid Peroxidation.
Materials and Methods Ethically approved cross sectional experimental research on a total numbers of 120 recruited male of family replacement donors (n=30) and Remunerated donors (n=90). Remunerated donors were grouped into three (3) based on the frequency of donation per year as mild (n=30), moderate (n=30) and high frequency (n=30) donors. Four hundred and fifty milliliters (450 ml) of blood drawn from each donor into double blood bag containing CPDA-1 anticoagulant. 100 ml of well mixed blood was transferred into the satellite bag, detached and stored in the blood bank at 2-6 C for 35 days. The blood samples analyzed for MDA, TAP, URIC, and GSH at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days of storage. Results: In the recruited donors, majority were above 40 years of age where family donors had secondary education, government employed; feed majorly on carbohydrate,