Haemolysin test, ABO and Rhesus Blood grouping in Relation to occurrence of stillbirth, Miscarriage and transfusion status among Pregnant Women in University of Calabar, Nigeria

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Naomi A. Ernest, Dorathy C. Okpokam, Patience A. Akpan, Henshaw Okoroiwu, and Anthony O. Emeribe

AJLHTS: Original Paper  DOI –ajlhtsonline.org/doi-org-10-59708-ajlhts-v2i2-2319/


Introduction: Human red blood cells contain on their surface a series of glycoproteins and glycolipids which constitute the blood group antigens, which are also related to many clinical problems associated with transfusion reactions 

Aims of study: aimed at providing information on 

the ABO and Rhesus Blood grouping in Relation to occurrence of stillbirth, Miscarriage and transfusion status among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar Nigeria

Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study comprising of 400 pregnant women, aged 16-45years and who gave their informed consent was used. ABO and Rhesus blood groups were analysed using commercially prepared reagent. Haemolysin test and antibody screening were performed using standard cells. Results: Most of the pregnant women were aged 16 – 36 years and no underweight pregnant women were recorded in this study. The prevalence of ABO blood group among the pregnant women showed the decreasing order of O>A>B>AB. It was observed that blood group O appeared about 3 times the prevalent of each group. The prevalence of Rhesus positive and Negative was 95% and 5% respectively. 5.5% of stillbirth was recorded while miscarriage had a prevalence of 17%. Approximately 5% of the pregnant women received blood transfusion. Rhesus blood group was found to be associated with still-birth (P=0.004)

Conclusion: ABO blood group distribution was in the order O>A>B>AB 63%, 20%, 14% and 3.0%. On the other hand, the study shows the prevalence of Rhesus D’ positive and Rhesus D’ negative to be 95% and 5% respectively. Blood group ‘O’ and rhesus positive blood group were predominant in stillbirth, miscarriages and transfusion status. It is recommended that the use of group O blood free from haemolysin a and ẞ should only be transfused to pregnant women because of risk to the foetus.

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