Cobalt-60 lymphocytes immuno-phenotypes/myeloid-lymphoid toxicities and countermeasure effects of aqueous extracts of Parquetina nigrescens, Camellia sinensis and Telfairia occidentalis in guineapigs

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Olatunbosun Luqman, Eltahir Ghalil, Abdulraheem Ameen A., Olalere Fatai D, Lawal Sikiru, Biliaminu Sikiru, Ogunwale Kolawole, Atunwa Soliu, Musiliu Oyenike A’ Lawal Ibrahim K.

AJLHTS: Original Paper

Department of HaematologyUniversity of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Sudan

Department of HaematologyUniversity of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

*Department of Chemical Pathology and Immunology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Department of Chemical Pathology and Immunology, University of Ilorin, Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Department of Histopathology and Morbid Anatomy, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH), Osogbo, Nigeria.

“Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Osun State Polytechnic, Esa Oke, Nigeria.

Abstract 

Introduction: Radiotherapy is an outstanding and efficacious mode of cancer management. Immune dyscrasia and dyshaemopoiesis in patients being managed with radiotherapy are well documented. Currently, no ideal radio-immuno-haematologic countermeasures in clinical use especially because, of their toxicities at the optimal concentrations exists. This study assessed the countermeasure effects of Parquetina nigrescens, Camellia sinensis and Telfairia occidentalis on immune syndrome in irradiated guineapigs.

Methods:

Thirty guineapigs were randomly assigned to nine groups: [A1-A4 (Pre), B1-B4 (Post) and C (Control)] where (n = 3)/group for countermeasure studies. Animals were exposed to 4.0 Gy whole-body Co❝ while extracts were administered twice daily at concentrations of 400 mg/ml, 1000 mg/ml, 900 mg/ml of C. sinensis, P. nigrescens and T. occidentalis respectively. Peripheral whole blood was collected on days (D): baseline, DO [24 hours after radiation], D3, D9 and D14. Haemogram and CD4 were analyzed

Results:

Lymphocyte immunephenotypes (CD4, Twbc), Abs. Neutrophil and Neutrophil:Lymphocyte ratio (NLR) counts were significantly increased from day 3 to 14 except NLR that was erratic on day 14 (p = 0.01). Contrarily, Absolute Lymphocyte counts were significantly decreased from day 3 to 9 then increased significantly on day 14 (p=0.00) with significant NLR similarly on day 14 (p=0.02). 

Conclusion:

The results indicate a significant decrease in lymphocyte- immunophenotypes in group C as compared to groups A and B,

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Serum Ferritin and Asymptomatic Malaria: A study in Calabar, Nigeria

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Ifeyinwa Maryann, Okafor’, Ogar Christopher Ogar’ and Okoroiwu Henshaw Uchechi1

AJLHTS: Original Paper

ABSTRACT 

Ferritin is a blood cell protein that contains iron. The serum ferritin level is widely accepted as an accurate indicator of body iron store being the only factor that can give a semi-quantitative indication of the levels of Iron storage. Increased serum ferritin has been reported in asymptomatic malaria infection. This study was done to determine the serum ferritin levels in asymptomatic malaria individuals in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Ninety (90) apparently healthy subjects were recruited, both male and female within the age of 18 to 65 years

Materials and Method 

The serum ferritin level was assayed using ELISA quantitative method. The Hb and PCV were also assayed using the automated cellular counter Sysmex Kx-21N. Malaria parasite detection was through examination of peripheral blood smears using 2% Giemsa

Results 

The mean serum ferritin levels for the malaria infected subjects was (25.11±1.27ng/ml), and this was significantly higher than the uninfected subjects (16.81±4.66ng/ml) (P<0.05). Mean serum ferritin level for infected males was (20.95±8.79ng/ml) which is slightly higher than uninfected males (16.01±3.53ng/ml) (P>0.05). The results also show mean serum ferritin for infected females to be (30.57±3.42ng/ml) which is higher than the uninfected females (18.65±1.98ng/ml). This result likewise shows significantly low level of Hb(12.97±1.5g/dl) and PCV (0.38±2.18L/L) in apparently healthy malaria infected individuals while high level of Hb(15.20±1.73g/dl) and PCV (0.44±1.58L/L) were observed among the uninfected subjects. There was also significant difference seen in infected male and infected female subjects, likewise the aparasitaemic males and females had significant difference (P<0.05)

Afr J Lab Haem Transf Sci 2023, 2(1): 15 – 22 

Asymptomatic malaria, serum ferritin, Calabar, Anaemia 

Conclusion 

This study has shown that asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia increases serum ferritin level, hence serum ferritin estimation without examination for malaria parasitaemia in malaria endemic area such as Calabar, Nigeria may not be reliable. The study also shows that asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia constitutes a significant disease burden and a challenge that should be.

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Toxicity of methanol seed extract of Moringa Oleifera on Haematological indices of Albino Wistar rats

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‘Kalu Chima Onwuka and Ernest Okemefuna Ukaejiofor

AJLHTS: Original Paper

Abstract

The effect of methanol extract of Moringa Oleifera seeds were determined in albino wistar rats, though several research works have been conducted on the Moringa Oleifera leaves extract however there is limited data available on the effect of the seeds extract on haematological parameters. This study was conducted to investigate the phytochemical, hematological and toxicological effect of extract of Moringa oleifera seeds in albino Wistar rats

Materials and Methods:

Thirty healthy albino wistar rats weighing between one hundred and twenty and one hundred and seventy grams randomized into five groups of six rats each and ad libitum with Moringa oleifera diets for fourteen days after two weeks of acclimatization in control. The groups were classified on varying concentrations of 25mg/kg,50mg/kg,100mg/kg,125mg/kg and control for groups A,B,C,D,E respectively. The total white blood cells,Red blood cells, Haemoglobin values, Haematocrit and Platelet count tests were carried out using Haematology autoanalyzer phytochemical and histological evaluations of any toxicities of Moringa oleifera seeds extract in albino Wistar rats were also investigated

Results:

Phytochemicals such as tannins, saponin, alkaloid/glucoside were found in low, moderate and high concentrations respectively in methanol extract of the Moringa oleifera seeds. The Red Blood Cells, Haemoglobin and Haematocrit values were significantly increased (p<0.05) with decreased Total white cell count for group A on day eight of the administration when compared to the control group. The extract however did not significantly (p>0.05) affect any parameter on day fifteen compared to the control group and day eight

Afr J Lab Haem Transf Sci 2023, 2(1): 23-34 

Toxicity of methanol seed extract of Moringa 

Conclusion:

Moringa oleifera seeds extract demonstrated dose and time dependent haemopoietic properties

Key words: Moringa, Oleifera,Haematological,Toxicities,Seeds, Rats.

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Full blood count and some iron parameters of Street Children in Calabar, Nigeria

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Akpan, P. A., Etura, J. E., Asuquo, B. L.

AJLHTS: Original Paper

Abstract 

Introduction: Street children refer to persons below 18 years who depend on the streets for their survival. These Street Children constitute a vulnerable group with regards to proper nutrition and healthcare hence this study was carried out to assess their full blood counts and some iron parameters. 

Methods: One hundred and eighty (180) children living on the street and homes in Calabar Metropolis were recruited into this study. Ethical approval was sought and obtained from the Cross River State Ministry of Health, Calabar. Consent was obtained from 90 apparently healthy children on the street while parents/guardians gave consent for 90 apparently healthy children living in homes (control). Demographic information was obtained by interview and weight and height measurements were taken using standard instruments; the body mass index was calculated and used to categorize the nutritional status of subjects. Haematological and iron parameters were determined by standard techniques. Data were analysed using a student ttest on SPSS version 21 with significance level set at P≤0.05. 

Results: Street Children comprised more males (53.3%) than females with 82.2% being out of school. Strategies employed for survival include receiving benefits from support groups (62.2%), engaging in odd jobs (60%) and begging for alms (100%). The body mass index of Street Children showed that 75.55% of them were healthy in terms of their nutritional status (BMI 16.2-25.5) while those that were underweight (<16.2) and obese (>27.9) made up 20% and 4.45% respectively as compared to 82.23% healthy weight, 2.22% underweight, 11.10% overweight (>25.5-27.9) and 4.45% obese observed for their counterparts who live in homes. The red cell 

Afr J Lab Haem Transf Sci 2023, 2(1): 35-44 

Full blood count and some iron parameters of Street Children in Calabar, Nigeria 

distribution width (RDWCV) was 13.61±3.25 and this was significantly lower (P=0.001) than 16.53±3.28 versus the control, while the total white blood cell count (7.87±4.18 x 10′/L) was significantly higher (P=0.05) for street children in comparison with 5.90±1.94 X 10′/L obtained for children in homes. Other haematological, as well as iron parameters, were comparable (P>0.05). 

Conclusions: The haematological parameters of Street children differed from children in homes in terms of a lower red cell distribution width and higher total white cell count. Twenty percent of street children were underweight as indicated by a lower BMI for their age. It is recommended that individuals, corporate bodies and the Government should unite to end street living for children

Keywords: Street Children, blood counts, iron, Haematological, Nigeria

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Leucocyte phagocytic activity of treatment-naïve HIV positive patients in Umuahia, Nigeria

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Udensi N’, Onyekwere T., Okoroiwu L., Muhibi M.A

AJLHTS: Original Paper

Abstract 

Objective: This study was conducted to determine white cell phagocytic activity in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection

Methods: One hundred HIV-positive patients were enrolled in this study while fifty apparently healthy seronegative individuals served as controls. The haemoglobin estimation, haematocrit, total white blood cell count (TWBC count), platelet count were analysed using conventional manual methods, the TWBC was repeated after incubation with carbonyl iron powder at 37°C to determine the phagocyte count, while CD4 count was analysed using Partec Cyflow 

counter

Results: The TWBC count of the test group before incubation with carbonyl iron powder (CIP) was 4839 ± 1686 (/mm3) while after incubation with CIP was 4451 ± 1657 (/mm3). The TWBC count of the control group before incubation with carbonyl iron powder (CIP) was 6096 ± 2196 (/mm3) while after incubation with CIP was 4074 ± 1745 (/mm3). The phagocyte count of test and control groups were 388±29 and 2022±451, with later being significantly higher than the former (p=0.001). Significant differences were observed in neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and platelet count of the control 45 ±7.2 (%),3±1.2(%),4 ± 1.4 (%), 41 ± 12 (%),12 (g/dl), 38 ± 4 (%), 211 ±14 (x 10/L); when compared with the test 20.7 ± 11.0 (%),1±1.4(%),1.7 (%), 28 ± 10(%), 9.2 (g/dl), 27 ± 09 (%), 90± 17 (x 10‘/L) (p<0.05). There was equally a significant difference in the value of CD4 count of the controls 864 ± 266 cells/μL when compared with the test 420 + 203 cells/μL at p <0.05. 

Afr J Lab Haem Transf Sci 2023, 2(1): 45-53 

Leucocyte phagocytic activity of treatment-naïve HIV positive patients in Umuahia, Nigeria 

Conclusion: The CD4 and phagocyte counts have a positive correlation with TWBC. All patients living with HIV should have their immune status monitored regularly to forestall inability of the system to perform phagocytosis

Keywords: Phagocytosis, CD4 cells, leucocytes, immunity, HIV.

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Platelet activities in pregnant women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus on HAART in Lagos, Nigeria

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Olufemi David Olaniyi, Tesleemah Oluwakemi Davies-Folorunsho, Abdulwaheed Adewale Ademosun, Nuryn Abdulganiyu, Omoruyi Pius Omosigho, Matthew Folaranmi Olaniyan And Musa Abidemi Muhibi

AJLHTS: Original Paper

ABSTRACT 

Introduction: Thrombocytopenia due to insufficient thromboxane A, activation has been an independent predictor associated with bleeding in some pregnant women living with HIV. More so, the elevation in the systemic vasoconstriction by the abnormal activation of platelets through thromboxane A, is a multi-system disorder during pregnancy resulting in maternal hypertension which is one of the major underlying pathophysiological occurrences in women with preeclampsia

Materials and Method: A cross-sectional, descriptive study to determine platelet activities in pregnant women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus on HAART residing in Lagos State, was carried out. A total of 80 samples were collected; 40 from pregnant women on HAART (group A), 20 samples from HIV negative pregnant women (group B) and 20 from non-pregnant HIV positive women on HAART (group C). The samples were analyzed using automated haematology analyzer (MIDRAY BC 10), platelets morphology was reviewed from blood films stained by Leishman stain and thromboxane A, was quantified using standard ELISA technique. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 23.0. Values were considered significantly different at P<0.05. 

Results: The platelets count results revealed the mean ± standard error of mean (SEM) in group A, group B and group C as 236.27 ± 11.40, 227.26 ± 16.44 and 246.21 ± 21.54 respectively (p=0.743). The Platelet distribution width (PDW) revealed the mean ± SEM in group A, group B and group Cas 13.50 ± 0.42,13.36 ± 0.53 and 12.56±0.52 (p = 0.390) As for mean platelet volume (MPV), the mean ± SEM for group A,

Afr J Lab Haem Transf Sci 2023, 2(1): 54 -62 

Platelet activities in pregnant women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus… 

group B and group C were 12.36 ± 1.96, 10.71 ± 0.37, and 10.45 ± 1.78 respectively(p = 0.671). The mean ± SEM of thromboxane A, in group A, group B and group 

C were 367.65 ± 37.74, 135.85±51.69 and 276.10 

+50.90 (p=0.02)

Conclusion and Recommendation: This study showed platelet aggregation in group A, group B and group C were 7.5%, 0%, and 2%; and this could be one of the suggestive factors in the increase in coagulation activities found in pregnancy. Thromboxane A level reflects a recent activation of platelets, thus it serves as a good biomarker. It is recommended that research be conducted to establish reference ranges of Thromboxane A, for categories of normal individuals, including pregnant women in Lagos while attention. should be paid to platelet activity studies in the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) programmes, to prevent mortality of participants on account of platelet aberrations

Keywords: HIV, HAART, PMTCT, Platelet Distribution Width, Thromboxane A2

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Determination of Some Haematological Parameters and Oxidative Stress Markers in Vesico-Vaginal Fistula Patients Attending Maryam Abacha Women and Children Hospital, Sokoto

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Amina Sulaiman Khalid and Hauwa Buhari Ali

AJLHTS: Original Paper

Abstract 

Introduction: Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is still a persisting scourge in developing countries with devastating medical and social consequences. The goal of this study was to assess the haematological parameters and oxidative stress markers of VVF patients compared with healthy control female subjects

Material and Methods: This study was carried out at VVF Centre, Maryam Abacha Women and Children Hospital, Sokoto. This is a descriptive study conducted on 50 VVF patients and 50 controls to determine some haematological parameters and oxidative stress markers. Questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic information while laboratory investigations were used to obtain haematological and free radical marker results

Results: The values obtained from the control and VVF subjects for PCV, RBC, hemoglobin, platelets, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and basophils were statistically non-significant (p>0.05) while WBC (5.45 ± 0.31 x 10’/L,59 ± 0.27 x 10’/L) and eosinophil (2.43 ±0.33%, 4.83 ± 0.54%) were statistically significant (p<0.05). For the free radical markers, both Malondialdehyde and glutathione levels were statistically nonsignificant (p>0.05). The correlation of Malondialdehyde and glutathione peroxidase levels with haematological parameters showed that only lymphocyte and monocyte counts were statistically significant respectively

Conclusion: Prolonged obstructed labour, early marriage, ignorance, lack of knowledge are among the factors responsible for the prevalence of VVF in Sokoto State. White blood cell and eosinophil counts should 

 

Determination of Some Haematological Parameters and Oxidative Stress Markers… 

be included as part of the laboratory investigations for VVF patients which may serve as indication for asymptomatic bacteriuria, women should not be given out of marriage before they reach age of maturity and Formal education should be made free and mandatory for girls’ up to tertiary institution. 

Keywords: Vesicovaginal fistula, Malondialdehyde, Glutathione peroxidase, Basophils, Neutrophils

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Prevalence of Transmissible Infections Among Breast Cancer Patients in Calabar, Nigeria

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Joseph E. Udosen, Euphoria C. Akwiwu, Utibe-Abasi Felix, David U. Akpotuzor, Josephine O. Akpotuzor

AJLHTS: Original Paper

Abstract 

Introduction: Transmissible infections including those of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and syphilis remain public health challenges. The co-existence of these infections with other disease conditions of medical importance can be quite challenging, particularly if there is no prior knowledge of the infection status. Apart from the direct impact on the affected patient, there is also the concern of safety for care givers as well as the risk of nosocomial transmission to other patients. This study focused on pre- operative screening of breast cancer patients to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and syphilis infections

Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among breast cancer patients in Calabar, Cross River State of Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was administered by two trained interviewers to obtain biodata and socio-demographic characteristics. Screening for antibodies to HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis were performed by standard serological techniques

Results: General prevalence for all the screened infections was 18%. Distribution of specific infections revealed hepatitis B viral infection to be highest (8%), followed by HIV infection (6%). Hepatitis C virus infection and syphilis were the least with 2% rates each. Among participants living with these infections, 33% had previous knowledge of their status, while the remaining 67% had no prior knowledge. 

Conclusion: Hepatitis B virus had the highest prevalence while the lowest were HCV and syphilis. Greater percentage of infected subjects were not aware of their status prior to the preoperative screening

Key words: Breast cancer, transmissible infections, prevalence

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Proportions of Blood Cell Deficits in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

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Joseph E. Udosen, Euphoria C. Akwiwu, Valerie E. Njar, David U. Akpotuzor, Josephine O. Akpotuzor

AJLHTS: Original Paper

Abstract 

Introduction: Anaemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia are at the forefront of haematological derangements encountered in the management of breast cancer. However, there is a gap in knowledge regarding their degree of occurrence at different stages of chemotherapy

Methods: Longitudinal design and purposive sampling technique were adopted to enroll 50 adult female breast cancer patients who were accessing chemotherapy at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital in Calabar, Cross River State of Nigeria. Ethical approval and informed consent were duly obtained. The blood cell counts were carried out by automation. Frequencies of anaemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia were calculated after applying cut-off point using age- and genderspecific refence ranges (<120 g/l of Haemoglobin concentration for anaemia, <4.0 x 109/1 of total white blood cell count for leucopenia and <150 x 10‘/1 of platelet count for thrombocytopenia)

Results: A greater number of the subjects had anaemia with prevalence ranging from 78% at the onset to 100% by the fifth course. Leucopenia ranged from 14% at the beginning to 100% by the third course. Thrombocytopenia was not present at pre-chemotherapy stage but appeared slightly (4%) during the assessment for second treatment course and rose to 55% at the last assessment. 

Conclusion: This study observed increasing proportions of cytopenia in association with progressing chemotherapy. There is high prevalence of anaemia in breast cancer even before commencement of chemotherapy, while leucopenia develops more rapidly during chemotherapy.

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