Performance Of Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Rapid Screening Techniques for detection Of Transfusion Transmitted Infections among blood donors

doi.org/10.59708/ajlhts.v2i4.2326

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Performance Of Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Rapid Screening Techniques for detection Of Transfusion Transmitted Infections among blood donors

Esan Ayodele Jacob, Owoseni M.F, Ibijola A, Omisakin C.T, Omoniyi D.P, Oyedele Titilayo and Fasakin Kolawole

1,2,3,4,5,7 Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science, Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria.

6Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achiever’s University, Ondo State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author: ESAN Ayodele Jacob, Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science, Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria. Orcid number: 0000-0002-3350-5991, e-mail: ayodelejacob4u@gmail.com, ayodelejacob4u@fethi.gov.ng,+2348035477756

Abstract

Introduction: Blood transfusion is associated with many risks, especially exposure to a transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). Lack of effective diagnostic techniques that can identifying the infection at window period contributes to the major health problem in most developing countries. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic performance of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid screening techniques for detection of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) among blood donors

Methodology: This study was conducted in the Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Services Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria from February 2021 to July 2023. A total of 3150 eligible blood donors that were screened fit for blood donation using rapid kits were subjected to ELISA screening technique. Questionnaire was used to inquire about risk factors for transfusion transmissible infection among blood donors and to sort the consent of all the blood donors before collecting their blood sample for study

Result: A total of 3150 blood donors that were screened negative for TTIs (HbsAg, HCV, HIV and syphilis) by rapid test kits were recruited for the study. Out of 3150 blood donors that were re-screened for TTIs by ELISA techniques, 34 (1.08%), 50 (1.59%), 07 (0.22%) and 13 (0.41%) were sero-positive for HbsAg, HCV, HIV and syphilis respectively. In general, the percentage seroprevalence of TTIs in our study was 104/3150 (3.3%), HCV had the highest prevalence of TTIs and Blood group O Rh D positive has the highest frequency among the study population

Conclusion: This study concluded that rapid test did not show any promising results when compared to ELISA. This study suggested that rapid test kits should not be recommended in transfusion center solely for screening blood donors for TTIs. There is need for combination of rapid test kits along with ELISA technique in the diagnosis of TTIs for blood donors. We advocate for legislation to make screening with ELISA mandatory for TTIs in all blood transfusion center and other health facilities in the country

Key words: Blood transfusion, Transfusion transmissible infection, Blood donors, Rapid kits, ELISA technique

Red cell parameters, iron, vitamin B12 and folate levels of pulmonary tuberculosis patients attending clinic at General Hospital, Akamkpa, Cross River State, Nigeria

doi.org/10.59708/ajlhts.v2i4.2331

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Red cell parameters, iron, vitamin B12 and folate levels of pulmonary tuberculosis patients attending clinic at General Hospital, Akamkpa, Cross River State, Nigeria

Akpan, P. A., Ogar, R. O., Nyong, E. A.

  1. Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science,
    Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science,
    University of Calabar, Nigeria.
  2. Department of Medical Laboratory Science (Haematology Unit), College of

Health Technology, Calabar.

* Corresponding author: apu0520@unical.edu.ng; +2348027321305

Abstract

Introduction: Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a disease of public health importance, characterized by a chronic granulomatous inflammation in humans. In this study, red cell and iron parameters as well as vitamin B12 and folate levels were assessed with a view to investigate the presence or absence of iron deficiency and/or vitamin B12 and folate deficiency in tuberculosis disease

Methods: Fifty (50) male and female tuberculosis patients within the ages of 15-60 years and attending clinic at the General Hospital, Akamkpa were enrolled in this study. Fifty apparently healthy and mantoux-negative subjects who were age and gender matched and resident in Akamkpa served as control. Ethical approval and informed consent were obtained from the Cross-River State Ministry of Health and all participants. Demographic information was obtained by face-to-face interview. Diagnosis of TB was by the Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Red cell and iron parameters, vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by standard methods. Data were analyzed using student t-test on statistical package for social sciences version 21and a P value less than or equal to 0.05 is considered significant.

Results: The mean age of TB patients (34.7±10.4 years) is comparable to that of the control (32.4±8.6 years) with more males (56%) affected than females (44%). Fifteen (30%) of the TB patients have primary level of education with 31 (62%) and 4 (8%) having attained secondary and tertiary levels. The level of education for the control was 12 (24%), 22 (44%) and 16 (32%) for primary, secondary and tertiary respectively. The TB patients were farmers 20 (40%), traders 15 (30%), students 9 (18%) and civil servants 6 (12%) while the controls consisted of 14 (28%) farmers, 16 (32%) traders, 12 (24%) students and 8 (16%) civil servants. The packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration of TB patients (0.34±0.05 L/L and 121.4±11.3 g/L) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than 0.41±0.04 L/L and 145.2±13.1 g/L for the control. The red cell count and mean cell volume of TB patients (4.55±0.73 x 10 12/L and 79.21±2.40 fl) was comparable (p > 0.05) to control values (4.84±0.54 x 10 12/L and 80.18±1.30 fl). Mean cell haemoglobin and mean cell haemoglobin concentration of TB patients was 27.58±2.12 pg and 34.37±1.43 g/dl, which was significantly lower than 29.72±2.24 pg and 35.73±1.38 g/dl obtained for control. The serum iron of TB patients (47.90±6.25µg/dl) was significantly lower (p = 0.001) than control value 109.03±8.56µg/dl. The total iron binding capacity (188.05±33.01µg/dl) and transferrin saturation with iron (28.00±4.54 %) were significantly lower (p = 0.001) for TB patients versus control (252.28±36.30µg/dl and 42.46±6.23%). Serum ferritin of TB patients (345.30±82.61 ng/ml) was significantly higher (p = 0.001) when compared to the value for control (108.62±28.50 ng/ml). Vitamin B12 and folate levels (245.3739.62 ng/L and 353.3457.06 µg/l) were significantly lower (p = 0.001) for TB patients when compared with control (550.2082.33 ng/L and 681.9397.36µg/l) though within the reference values.

Conclusions: This study has shown a lower packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration in tuberculosis disease indicating the presence of anaemia. An alteration in iron metabolism and increased iron stores has also been demonstrated ruling out iron deficiency anaemia. Vitamin B12 and folate levels though lower for TB patients, are within the reference range thus excluding megaloblastic anaemia. Tuberculosis shows a normocytic normochromic anaemia which is typical of anaemia of chronic disease and inflammation.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, iron, vitamin B12, folate, Akamkpa

Utility of World Health Organization Haematological Toxicity Scale in the Assessment of Smokers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

doi.org/10.59708/ajlhts.v2i4.2333

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Utility of World Health Organization Haematological Toxicity Scale in the Assessment of Smokers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

 Akabs Ibise Jewel, Theresa Awortu Jeremiah, Zaccheaus Awortu Jeremiah, 

1Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt,Nigeria.

2Department of Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Federal University Otuoke, Otuoke, Nigeria.

Corresponding Author:

Prof Z.A.Jeremiah.

e-mail: zaccheaus.jeremiah@ust.edu.ng

Phone: +2348034045636

Running Title: WHO haematological toxicity scale and evaluation of smokers

Abstract

Introduction: This study was aimed at evaluating some haematological parameters among smokers in Port Harcourt, Rivers State and to ascertain if the effect of smoking can be assessed using the World Health Organization Haematological toxicity scale.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study which involved 100 individuals (50 smokers and 50 non-smokers) within the ages of 20-45 years was used. Blood samples were collected by venipuncture into an EDTA anticoagulant bottle for haematological analysis of selected haematology parameters. The samples were processed using haematology auto analyser- SYSMEX KX-21. Statistical analysis was done using Graph Pad prism version 8.02 for windows. Comparisons of mean and standard deviation were made for the various parameters using student’s t-test.

Results: The mean values of haemaglobin for smokers (14.50 ± 1.773 g/dL) was significantly elevated when compared with 11.74 ±1.15 g/dL in non-smokers. (p≤ 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean values of leucocyte count in smokers compared to non-smokers (p ≥ 0.05). The mean value of granulocyte count in smokers (4.52 ± 1.28 x 109/L) was significantly higher than that of non-smokers (3.81 ±.0.72 x109/L) (p ≤ 0.0008). The mean platelet count of smokers (236.0 ± 64.65×109/L) was significantly raised when compared with that of non-smokers (217.7 ± 42.71×109/L). In the control group, 8% were found to be anaemic corresponding to Grade 2 of the WHO toxicity scale (8-9.4g/dL) whereas all of the smokers were one hundred percent (100%) in grade 0 (≥ 11.0 g/dL). For the white blood cell count, majority of the control subjects were 90% grade 2 (3.0-3.9×109/L) whereas among the smokers, they were 100% in grade 0. For the platelets, all the control subjects were 100% grade 0 (≥×109/L) while 2% of the smokers (test) fell into grade 1 (75-99×109/L) of the WHO toxicity scale ( ie mild thrombocytopenia).

Conclusion: We concluded that smoking causes a significant elevation of haemogobin and granulocytes and at the same time elevated platelet counts whereas 2% of smokers fell into grade 1 of the toxicity scale. This effect may be more pronounced if a longer duration of smoking and a larger sample is considered in further studies.

Keywords: WHO toxicity scale; Haematological Parameters,smokers,

Duffy Red Cell Antigen Phenotype among Indigenous Pregnant Women attending Antenatal Clinic at Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe, Nigeria.

doi.org/10.59708/ajlhts.v2i4.2337

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Duffy Red Cell Antigen Phenotype among Indigenous Pregnant Women attending Antenatal Clinic at Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe,   Nigeria.

Ahmed M. Gaji, Ann Ogbenna, Ahmed I. Girei, Kasim M. Pindiga, Sani Adamu, Saleh Yuguda, Ademola Adewoyin , Davies N.O.

1Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, College of Medicine, University of Lagos,Nigeria

2Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria.

3Department of Chemical Pathology, Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria.

Curresponding Author: mohammedgaji2@gmail.com

Abstract

Background and Objectives: Duffy (FY) blood group system is implicated in transfusion incompatibilities and haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn. The primary objective was to determine the Duffy phenotype among the indigenous pregnant women in Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria. 

Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study where simple random sampling was employed on consented participants. Two hundred and fifty nine pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe were randomly recruited into the study. Three milliliters (3mls) of blood was taken, and Duffy antigens typed by standard tube technique (LORNE LABORATORY UK).

Results: Among the Indigenous tribe, the percentage of Fy(a+b+) was seen in 2.2% of Fulani and 3.4% of Tangale, Fy(a+b-) phenotype was seen in 4.3% of Tangale, 6.8% of Fulani,9.5%  of Tera, 10.3% of Hausa and 10.5% of Waja.  Fy(a-b+) phenotype was seen in 5.3% of Waja, 7.6% of Fulani,8.7% of Tangale, 9.5% of Tera and 12.5% of Bolawa. Fy(a-b-) phenotype was seen in 2.4% of Tula,6.4% of Bolawa,7.3% of Waja, 7.8% of Tera, 17.8% of Tangale, 11.8% of Hausa and 46.5% of Fulani. 84.6% of the study population had the null Duffy phenotype.

Conclusion:  The research showed the phenotypic distribution of Duffy blood group among the study participants with relatively high percentage of null Duffy phenotype hence possible risk of alloimmunisation.

Key words: Duffy phenotype, Haemolytic disease of foetus and newborn, plasmodiasis.

Performance evaluation of the Hemotype SCTM   rapid test for the diagnosis of sickle cell disease

doi.org/10.59708/ajlhts.v2i4.2338

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Performance evaluation of the Hemotype SCTM   rapid test for the diagnosis of sickle cell disease

Diallo Issiaga, Adje Missa Louis, Salifou Talassone Bangoura, Yayo Aye Mireille  Kadio Jean-Jacques Olivier Kadio, Sidibé Sidikiba, Sawadogo Duni

1 Faculty of Health Sciences and Techniques, Gamal Abdel Nasser University, Conakry, Guinea

2 Hematology Laboratory University Hospital Yopougon Abidjan

3UFR Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences Université UFHB Abidjan

4 Center for Research and Training in Infectious Diseases of Guinea (CERFIG)

Email address:

issiagahady@gmail.com (Issiaga Diallo*), adjemissa@gmail.com (Adje Missa Louis), talassone.bangoura@cerfig.org (Salifou Talassone Bangoura), yayoaye@yahoo.fr (Yayo Aye Mireille), olivier.kadio@cerfig.org (Kadio Jean-Jacques Olivier Kadio), layesidikiba@gamail.com (Sidibé Sidikiba) dunisawadogo@gmail.com (Sawadogo Duni)

Abstract

Introduction: The use of Rapid Orientation Diagnostic Tests (“RODTs”) could play an important role in the mass screening of certain diseases. It saves a great deal of time while managing the flow of samples and the difficulties associated with their storage. This study aimed to identify the impact of the delay between sampling and analysis on the analytical performance of the Hemotype RODT SCTM.

Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted over one month. The Immunology-Hematology Department of the CHU de Cocody served as the study setting. The study population consisted of sickle cell patients and hemoglobin C carriers of all ages and sexes. We performed hemoglobin electrophoresis on all samples on the day of collection (D0) and the Hemotype SCTM rapid test on D0, D2, D4, and D6. Sensitivity and specificity were used to determine analytical performance, and the chi2 test was used to compare qualitative variables.

Results: The study involved 102 patients with a median age of 16 years (IQR: 9-24). Half of the participants (56.96%) were SSFA2 homozygous sickle cell disease major. On average, 87.1% of RODT results were valid from D0 to D6. At D0, the RODT had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 81.40% for Hb A; Hb S had a sensitivity of 79.80% and a specificity of 100%; Hb C had a sensitivity of 35.71% and a specificity of 98.65%. The sensitivity of Hb C and the specificity of Hb A had increased statistically significantly over time. Cross-referencing the RODT results from D0 to D6 with those of electrophoresis showed a concordance of 86.95% for the AA phenotype, 79.52% for AS; 88.52% for SS; and 95.45% for SC.

Conclusion: The HemoTypeSC™ test, with a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 98% is suitable in certain areas where access to electrophoresis is limited.  This performance is not impaired on samples stored for 6 days.

Keywords: Evaluation, HemoTypeSC, Sickle cell disease, Hemoglobin

Serum Calcium and HbA1c Levels in Sudanese Patients with Type II Diabetes mellitus: is there any correlation?

doi.org/10.59708/ajlhts.v2i4.2339

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Serum Calcium and HbA1c Levels in Sudanese Patients with Type II Diabetes mellitus: is there any correlation?

Ibrahim Abdelrhim Ali, Alia Ahmed Haroun,Muaath Ahmed Mohammed

1,2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, the National Ribat University,Khartoum,Sudan. . 3Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine,Ibnsina University, Khartoum, Sudan.

Corresponding author: mwawssi0@gmail.com

Abstract

Background: By influencing the production and release of insulin from the pancreatic beta cells, calcium ions have a significant impact on glycemic control. Calculating calcium levels is crucial for tracking insulin secretion because hypocalcaemia in non-diabetic individuals is linked to impaired insulin release. The purpose of this study was to measure serum calcium levels and compares them to HbA1c levels in Sudanese patients with type II diabetes who reside in Khartoum State.

Methods: At the Al-Amal Diabetes Center, 60 Sudanese patients with type II diabetes were the subjects of a cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted between March and June 2021. Demographic information, the length of diabetes, the kind of treatment, and co-morbidity were all covered by a standard questionnaire. Using the Mindray B 300 device, the HbA1c and serum Ca2+ were measured. SPSS version 25 was used to analyze the data.

Results: The participants’ mean age was 56.8±13 years. Of the participants, two thirds are men. The average duration of diabetes was 12.0±8.8 years. The results showed that the mean HbA1c was 8.2± 2.5 % and the mean serum Ca2+ was 8.5± 0.4 mg/dl.   HbA1c and serum Ca2+ did not show any discernible correlation (r = 0.104 and P = 0.429). Serum Ca2+ levels did not significantly correlate with the participants’ ages or the length of time they had diabetes mellitus.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that neither the duration of the DM nor the HbA1c were significantly correlated with the serum Ca2+ level. These results need to be confirmed by a more extensive investigation.

Keywords: Type II, Diabetes Mellitus, DM, correlation, Serum Calcium, HbA1c.

 Spread of Hepatitis A and B among Inmates of Correctional Centers: A cause for concern

doi.org/10.59708/ajlhts.v2i4.2340

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 Spread of Hepatitis A and B among Inmates of Correctional Centers: A cause for concern

Okafor, Ifeyinwa  M.,  Okoroiwu Henshaw U., Ogar Chrisopher O. and Esong, Aniekan Aniekan

1Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medical Sciences University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, David Umahi Federal University of Health Sciences, Uburu, Ohaozara LGA, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Corresponding author:  Okafor, Ifeyinwa M.   Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science, Faculty of Medical Lab. Science, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

Email address  okaforify12@gmail.com ; okaforify@unical.edu.ng 

Phone Number:  +2348080680620

Abstract

Introduction

Correctional centers have populations with higher rates of blood borne infections, including hepatitis B Virus, due to the concentration of impoverished and vulnerable groups of people at increased risk in these settings, such as people who inject drugs and people who exchange sex for drugs or money. Many people who are incarcerated also have risk factors for hepatitis A virus infection mainly due to the environment of closed penal institutions and socioeconomic conditions.

Aim

The purpose of this study was to evaluate HAV and HBV virus status among inmates of  a correctional center in Calabar, Cross River State Nigeria..

Method

A total of one hundred inmates with the mean age of 35 years participated in the study. their serum samples were tested for HAV and HBsAg antibody using one step Anti-HAV and Anti-HBV test strips.

Results

The prevalence of HAV infection among the inmates was found to be 1.00% and 10.0% for HBV. Male prison inmates had seroprevalence of 1.14% for HAV while all the females that participated in the study were non-reactive for hepatitis A virus (0.00% prevalence). The result also showed highest prevalence of 14.28% among inmates aged 40 years and above while the lowest prevalence was observed among those aged below 20years with 4.54% prevalence for HBsAg and highest prevalence was recorded between 20 to 40 years of age for hepatitis A with a prevalence of 1.56%. There was a statistically significant association (p<0.05) between duration of stay in prison, equipment sharing, sexual exposure, multiple partners and Hepatitis B virus infection. Alcoholism was also found to associate significantly with both Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B virus infection.

Conclusion

10.0% prevalence of Hepatitis B virus infection and 1.0% Hepatitis A virus that were observed among correctional center inmates studied are high and course for concern. Attitude and behaviors by inmates such as tattooing/scarification, injection drugs use, sharing of shaving equipment, multiple sexual partners and alcohol consumption should be discouraged. There is need to promote advocacy programs especially as regards avoiding practices that enhances hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus infection and transmission.

Key Words: Hepatitis B, Hepatitis A, Correctional Center, Infectious disease, inmates

Primary plasma cell leukemia discovered during a case of acute anemia following gastrointestinal bleeding

doi.org/10.59708/ajlhts.v2i4.2341

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Case Study

Primary plasma cell leukemia discovered during a case of acute anemia following gastrointestinal bleeding

Kueviakoe M. D. I., Padaro E., Magnang H., Layibo Y., Mawussi K., Vovor A.

Affiliations

KUEVIAKOE Messanh Délagnon Irénée

Department of Hematology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Lomé, Lomé, Togo

kueviam@hotmail.com

PADARO Essohana

Department of Hematology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Lomé, Lomé, Togo

essohanapadaro@gmail.com

MAGNANG Hèzouwè

Department of Hematology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Lomé, Lomé, Togo

2008magnang@gmail.com

LAYIBO Yao

Department of Hematology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Lomé, Lomé, Togo

mylayibo@gmail.com

MAWUSSI Koffi

Department of Hematology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Kara, Kara, Togo

mawussimeko@gmail.com

VOVOR Ahoefa

Department of Hematology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Lomé, Lomé, Togo

avovor@yahoo.fr

 

Corresponding author

Messanh D. Irénée KUEVIAKOE: kueviam@hotmail.com

ORCID: 0000-0003-3505-4917

Abstract

Plasma cell leukemia can occur in undiagnosed patients with myeloma. The existence of anemic syndrome with intolerance symptoms following massive gastrointestinal bleeding can mislead the diagnosis. Careful reading of blood smears is essential, especially in regions of the world with a weak technical platform. In this case, abnormal plasma cells were found on the blood smear. The myelogram revealed a bone marrow infiltration by dysmorphic plasma cells. An immunophenotypic analysis discovered circulating plasma cells, which helped to establish the diagnosis. A methodical identification of the etiology of anemia is needed to discover causes of anemia more easily.

Keywords

Leukemia, plasma cell, anemia, blood smear